Objectives. This study examined ergonomic risk levels and upper quadrant musculoskeletal pain (UQMP) levels of hairdressers,and the difference and correlation between genders. Methods. Volunteers participating in the study were assessed with the descriptive data form, rapid upper limb assessment (RULA), Cornell musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire (CMDQ) and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score. Results. In total, 229 (female, 26.6%; male, 73.4%) hairdressers participated in the study. Prevalence of the first three frequencies of pain in the musculoskeletal system was 48.5% in the neck, 41.5% in the upper back and 33.6% in the shoulder. The mean DASH score of the hairdressers was 10.75 +/- 10.70, quick DASH-work modulated score was 6.85 +/- 10.24 and mean ergonomic risk score was moderate to high (5.36 +/- 1.22) according to RULA. Although there was no difference in terms of gender in the ergonomic risk level, a higher level of UQMP was significant in females (p < 0.05). RULA score correlated with CMDQ and DASH scores in both genders (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Hairdressers perform their jobs in work environments with moderate to very high ergonomic risk levels. There is a possibility of UQMP in hairdressers, especially females, due to the effect of their movement patterns as a requirement of their profession.