This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory activities of the essential oils of Phlomis armeniaca WILLD., P. nissolii L., and P. pungens WILLD. var. pungens as well as their fatty acid contents. Germacrene D was found as the major compound in the oils (24.7, 15.1, and 7.2%, respectively). Additionally, n-hexadecanoic acid, hexahydrofarnesyl acetone, beta-caryophyllene, and linalool were the other main compounds in the oils. Among the fatty acids, C18:3 omega 3 and C18:2 omega 6 were determined in high quantities in P. armeniaca (23.14 and 18.01%, respectively) and P. pungens var. pungens (24.64 and 17.51%, respectively). The essential oils of P. armeniaca and P. pungens var. pungens showed remarkable antioxidant and metal chelating activities as well as great reducing power potentials. These oils also showed a moderate scavenging effect on ABTS radicals. The oils also exhibited various degrees of inhibitory activities on AChE, BChE, alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and tyrosinase.