Background: It has been demonstrated that myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) causes renal damage. However, the mechanism underlying this damage in kidneys during revascularization of myocardium is unclear. Direct renal ischemia/reperfusion has been implicated in the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) that leads to increase production of nitric oxide (NO). Recently, excessive production of NO has been found to be involved in causing renal injury by formatting peroxinitrite (ONOO(-)). The aim of this study was to investigate whether NO has a role in this damage, using aminoguanidine (AMG), a known iNOS inhibitor and an antioxidant, in rats undergoing MI/R.