In this study, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) levels in soil were studied for a whole year in highly industrialized region of Turkey (Dilovasi) at 23 sampling sites. Sigma 8PBDE concentrations were between 0.15 and 286 mu g kg(-1) and the overall average concentration was 14.45 +/- 25.07 g kg(-1) (average +/- SD). BDE-209 was the most abundant compound. PBDEs concentrations decreased spatially as follows: industrial/urban > urban > suburban > rural. However, there was not any significant seasonal trend except for some industrial/urban sites. In the region, calm weather conditions prevailed during the sampling periods, enhancing the impact of the industrial emissions on nearby soil concentrations by atmospheric deposition without being diluted by winds. All congeners had significant but weak correlations with soil organic matter content indicating the impact of nearby sources rather than soil properties on soil PBDEs concentrations at the sampling sites. Positive matrix factorization method was also used for the apportionment of the PBDEs sources in Dilovasi soil. Industrial activities (i.e., iron-steel production, metallurgical processes, and recycling of plastics), traffic, and residential areas were found to be the primary sources of the measured PBDEs in the soil.