PRACE KOMISJI GEOGRAFII PRZEMYSLU POLSKIEGO TOWARZYSTWA GEOGRAFICZNEGO-STUDIES OF THE INDUSTRIAL GEOGRAPHY COMMISSION OF THE POLISH GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, vol.31, no.4, pp.52-70, 2017 (Journal Indexed in ESCI)
This study deals with the development of industry which is one of the most important elements of socio-economic transformation in Turkey, its structural features, spatial distribution, as well as the factors that influence it. Industrialization movements started in Turkey in 1963 with planned development moves and accelerated as a result of the impact of liberal policies implemented, in and after the year 1980. Initially, industrial activities concentrated in metropolitan areas and subsequently started to expand to other areas in the country, in time with a view on regional development as a result of factors such as development plans, applied initiative policies, current raw material resources and transport. However, there are still major disparities in the distribution of the manufacturing industry, enterprises, employees, exporting and importing within the country. In fact, according to data for 2014, 43.9% of manufacturing industrial enterprises and 47.4% of employees are concentrated in the Marmara Region. The Marmara Region is followed by the Central Anatolian Region with 13.8% and 15.3% and the Aegean Region with 14% and 15.2% in terms of manufacturing industrial enterprises and employees respectively. Furthermore, 69.7% of exports and 76.9% of imports are processed in the Marmara Region which is followed by 9.6% and 7.7% in the Aegean Region and 8.2% and 7.4% in the Central Anatolian Region respectively. In terms of provinces, industry is concentrated in Istanbul, Izmir, Ankara, Bursa, Konya, Gaziantep, Antalya, Adana, Kocaeli and Denizli in Turkey. These provinces consist of 64% of enterprises and 65.7% of employees in Turkey. Data acquired from Turkish Statistical Institute (Turkstat) and the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology has been assessed with the use of ArcGis program.