Objective: Peritonitis is a common clinical problem that occurs in patients with end stage renal disease and is treated by peritoneal dialysis. We evaluated the potential risk factors in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) related peritonitis in our hospital. Material and Methods: The study was a case-control study. CAPD related peritonitis patients treated in Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Department between January 2005 and July 2006 formed the study group. The control group comprised CADP patients without peritonitis. Demographic characteristics of the study and the control group were recorded. Potential risk factors for peritonitis were also recorded. Complete blood count and albumin levels were tested in both groups. Age, gender, hand washing habits, educational background, reason of renal disease, reason of CAPD who person performed CAPD, hemoglobin and albumin levels were investigated as potential risk factors by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: There were 47 patients in the study group and 50 patients in the control group. The mean age of the patients was 49.6 +/- 16.41 years and 44.82 +/- 14.41 years in the study and control groups, respectively (p>0.05). Anemia and low albumin level were found as risk factors in univariate analysis. Low albumin level (p<0.001) was a statistically significant and independent risk factor for CAPD-related peritonitis in the multivariate analysis. It was found to increase the relative risk of peritonitis 11 fold. Conclusion: In several previous studies, low albumin level was reported as a risk factor in CAPD patients with peritonitis. Hipoalbuminemia can be considered an identifying parameter and the CAPD patients with hipoalbuminemia can be followed up closely for peritonitis.