The effect of functionalized titanium dioxide nanotube reinforcement on the water sorption and water solubility properties of flowable bulk-fill composite resins


ODONTOLOGY, vol.110, no.2, pp.313-328, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 110 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10266-021-00664-7
  • Journal Name: ODONTOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.313-328
  • Keywords: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Nanotube, Sorption, Solubility, Titanium dioxide, DENTAL COMPOSITES, TIO2 NANOTUBES, WEAR-RESISTANCE, NANOPARTICLES, MONOMERS
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of titanium dioxide nanotube addition on the water sorption and water solubility values of different composite resins. Titanium dioxide nanotubes were synthesized from titanium dioxide powder in anatase form and in 13 nm diameter by hydrothermal process and then functionalized with methacrylic acid. Characterization of the nanotubes was performed by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A flowable composite resin (Filtek Ultimate Flowable) and four flowable bulk-fill composite resins (Filtek Bulk Fill Flowable, SDR Bulk Fill Flowable, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra Base) were tested. Two groups of each composite resin were prepared: groups of the resins without nanotubes; groups of the resins reinforced with 1.0 wt% functionalized titanium dioxide nanotube. Sorption and solubility in water were assessed according to ISO 4049 standards after 1, 7, 14, 21 days immersion periods. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests (p < 0.05). Long cylindrical tubular structures with a diameter of 41.09-72.49 nm were observed in electron microscopy analysis. The band at 1636 cm( - 1) showed the existence of the vinyl (C=C) bond of methacrylic acid coordinated to the nanotubes in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. None of the materials tested in this study exceeded the maximum sorption and solubility values established by ISO. Regarding the water solubility, negative values were obtained. TiO2 nanotube reinforcement decreased the water sorption and solubility values significantly at different evaluation periods in all composite resins except for Venus (p < 0.05).