The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in jaw bones due to osteoporosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Subjects that had undergone CBCT for various oral conditions and demonstrating clinical findings of osteoporosis were invited to participate in the study. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on 90 patients aged over 30 years who underwent CBCT. The study groups were based on DXA results, and included 26 osteoporosis patients (mean age standard deviation; 58.52 5.91), 33 osteopenia patients (52.67 +/- 8.61) and 31 healthy controls (49.81 +/- 10.47). CBCT images of jaw bones were evaluated using radiomorphometric indexes, CT values, histogram analysis (HA) and fractal dimension (FD) analysis. Right and left mandibular radiomorphometric indexes, CT values and HA measurements in osteoporosis patients were significantly lower than measurements in osteopenia patients and control subjects (P <= 0.05). Positive correlations were observed between measurements of spine bone mineral density (BMD) and right and left mandibular CT values (P <= 0.01) and HA (P <= 0.01) measurements. Left maxilla FD measurements in osteoporosis patients were significantly lower than in the control (P <= 0.05) and osteopenia (P <= 0.05) groups. Osteoporosis caused significant changes in radiomorphometric indexes, CT values, and HA and FD measurements in the jaw bones.