Purpose: A prospective study was planned to determine the relationship between post swim-up acrosome index (AI) evaluation and fertilization outcomes in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) program. Materials and Methods: Infertile couples who have applied to IVF were admitted into this study when the male partner's sperm concentration was > 20 x 10(6)/mL and motility > 30%. Pre- and post swim-up semen quality parameters including concentration, motility, sperm morphology and AI were evaluated in a prospective, randomized and blinded fashion. The couples were divided prospectively into 2 groups. In group I (25 couples) 50 000 sperm per oocyte were used for insemination considering post swim-up acrosome index, and in group II (25 couples) 50 000 sperm per oocyte were used for insemination without considering post swim-up acrosome index. Results: Pre- and post swim-up AI were 30.8 +/- 3.4 and 17.8 +/- 4.5 in group I, and 31.4 +/- 3.6 and 16.3 +/- 4.7 in group II (p > 0.05) respectively. The significant improvement in morphology and motility after double wash swim-up procedure has been observed. However, double wash swim-up procedure could not eliminate head and especially acrosomal defects which would directly effect fertilization capacity in conventional IVF program. In group I, 85.3% of oocytes were fertilized, with a 48% pregnancy rate; in group II, 71.0% of oocytes were fertilized, with a pregnancy rate of 20%. Fertilization and pregnancy rates were significantly different (p < 0.05) between the two groups. Conclusion: We have concluded that it could be useful to consider post swim-up AI of sperm inseminated in conventional IVF cycles, which correlates with high fertilization and pregnancy rates.