Low-fat (6% fat) and full-fat (32% fat) Cheddar cheese was manufactured and aged up to 6-9 months at 5 degrees C. The objective was to study the impact of fat on the physicochemical properties of Cheddar cheese. Total soluble nitrogen (TSN) and protein nitrogen (TPSN) in aqueous extracts were determined by the Kjeldahl method. The peptide content of each cheese was determined with reverse phase chromatography (RPC). Low-fat Cheddar (LFC) had a markedly higher peptide content than full-fat Cheddar (FFC). The overall peptide quantity increased with age with a marked increase in hydrophobic peptide content. Rheological properties were determined using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. LFC had significantly higher stress values, indicating hard and rubbery texture, than FFC. Furthermore, LFC had lower strain values, indicating crumbliness.