Serum zonulin and claudin-5 levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

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Aydoğan Avşar P., Işık Ü., Aktepe E., Kılıç F., Doğuç D., Büyükbayram H.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE, vol.25, no.1, pp.49-55, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 25 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/13651501.2020.1801754
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.49-55
  • Keywords: Attention-deficit, hyperactivity disorder, blood-brain barrier, claudin-5, intestinal permeability, zonulin, BLOOD-BRAIN-BARRIER, INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY, GUT PERMEABILITY, TIGHT JUNCTIONS, UP-REGULATION, HYPERACTIVITY, PATHOGENESIS, DYSFUNCTION, EXPRESSION, PATHOLOGY
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


Objective This study aimed to investigate serum zonulin and claudin-5 levels of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and healthy controls by controlling the parameters such as age, sex and body mass index (BMI) percentile which are known to affect these parameters. Method A total of 80 treatment-naive children and adolescents with ADHD and 40 healthy volunteer controls aged 8-12 years were enrolled in this study. The severities of ADHD symptoms were assessed via parent- and teacher-rated questionnaires. The severity of anxiety and depression symptoms of the children were assessed by the self-report inventories. Serum levels of zonulin and claudin-5 were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed a significant main effect of groups in the serum zonulin and claudin-5 levels, an effect that was independent of age, sex and BMI percentile. Significant differences were found between the study groups in terms of serum log-claudin-5 levels. However, there was no significant difference between the study groups in terms of serum zonulin levels Conclusion These findings provide additional evidence for dysregulation of the blood-brain barrier, especially abnormalities in claudin-5 function, which may be involved in the aetiology of ADHD.