Urban soil quality of Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Rajak M., Patel K. S., Jaiswal N. K., Patel R. K., Bontempi E., Yubero E., ...More

Environmental Quality Management, vol.32, no.3, pp.287-299, 2023 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 32 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/tqem.21899
  • Journal Name: Environmental Quality Management
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.287-299
  • Keywords: carbons, heavy metals, ions, soil quality, sources
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.Soil quality in urban areas in India is degraded due to multiple anthropogenic activities. The objectives of this work are to determine the concentration variations, toxicity, and sources of carbons, metals, and ions in the surface soil of Raipur, the industrialized capital city of Chhattisgarh state, India. High concentrations of Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, and elemental carbon (EC) were registered. Relatively lower concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba, Pb, organic carbon (OC), and carbonate carbon (CC), as well as ions (viz. F–, Cl–, NO3–, SO42–, Na+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+), were also recorded. EC was found to be one of the major pollutants, although enrichment factors pointed to high contamination with SO42–, K+, Mg2+, Cr, Mn, and Pb; and extreme contamination with NO3– and Ca2+. The spatial and temporal variations, enrichment factors, toxicity, and sources of the chemical species detected in the soil are discussed.