Background: The aim of this study was to examine knowledge about cancer and early diagnosis of cancer among nurses. Materials and Method: This descriptive study was carried out at a University Faculty of Medicine Hospital in Turkey. Study between April and June, 2011, with 325 volunteer nurses. The collection tool consisted of two survey forms. The first was designed for sociodemographic information and the second consisted of 16 questions, prepared in accordance with the literature as open and close-ended, for interviews conducted by researchers. Results: Out of the individuals (n=325), included in the study, 90.8% were female, 63.1% high school-university graduates and 55.1% married, with an average years of service of 6.34 +/- 5.33 and an average age of 28.1 +/- 5.10. The mean cancer knowledge point was 70.1 +/- 19.5. Some 79.1% of nurses had not received cancer related continuing education by specialists. A signified relation was found between the nurse knowledge on cancer and educational level (p<0.05). Conclusions: The nurse, a member of the health staff, is in constant contact with individuals at hospitals, schools, polyclinics, workplaces, and homes. When educating society about cancer, nurses need to have a high level of knowledge regarding early diagnosis and cancer prevention.