We investigated the potential hepatoprotective effects of misoprostol (MP) on doxorubicin (DOX) induced liver injury in rats using histology and biochemistry. We used 21 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided randomly into three groups: group 1, control; group 2, DOX; group 3, DOX + MP. The control group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 0.5 ml 0.9% w/v NaCl and given 1 ml 0.9% NaCl orally for 6 days. DOX was administered i.p. as a single dose of 20 mg/kg. MP, 0.2 mg/kg, was given orally for 6 days. Treatment with MP increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and decreased serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels significantly in serum. Increased malondialdehyde level and decreased catalase, glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels caused by DOX were suppressed significantly in liver tissue by MP. DOX + MP reduced loss of body weight. Oxidative stress was decreased, antioxidant activity was increased and histopathological changes were reduced in the DOX + MP group compared to the DOX group. Liver injury caused by DOX was attenuated by MP treatment owing to the antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects of MP, which might be useful for reducing the severity of DOX induced liver injury.