The nephrotoxicity of amikacin (AK) was prevented with pentoxifylline (PTX) in a rat model. Rats were received a single injection of AK (1.2 g/kg, i.p.) with or without PTX pretreatment (25 mg/kg, orally). Renal morphology was investigated by light microscopy. Tissue samples and trunk blood were also obtained to determine renal malondialdehyde (MDA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) levels. MDA production was found to be higher in AK group. PTX administration caused a significant decrease in MDA production. Morphological damage in rats given AK was severe in the kidney, whereas in rats given AK plus PTX, no histological changes occurred. It is concluded that PTX could be useful for reducing the nephrotoxic effects of AK.