In this study, the frequency of European pear rust (Gymnosporangium fuscum) lesions on Juniperus excelsa was investigated both on seedlings in a nursery and on forest trees in six juniper stands located in south-western Turkey. In the nursery, lesions occurred on 0.7% of 5510 1-year-old seedlings and 29% of 200 2-year-old potted seedlings. In each of the juniper forests, 50 trees were chosen within a square of approximately 400 m(2) in size. In general, rust lesions were common on the trees. On average, 49.0% of the trees had lesions; on 17.3% of the trees, the lesions were located on the trunk, on 43.3% on the branches and on 11.7% on both. In lesion-bearing trees, the average number of lesions was 1.47-3.59 and the maximum number of lesions per tree were six to 11. Most of the lesions (85.1%) were on branches. There were significant differences between the stands, which can be attributed to different age of the trees, site factors and the presence of alternate hosts. The rust identified from stem lesions in forest trees and from nursery seedlings was European pear rust (G. fuscum), but possible co-occurrence of other Gymnosporangium spp. cannot be excluded.