The administration of chemotherapeutic agents for colorectal carcinoma is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a concomitant decrease in antioxidant and element levels in the blood. This study investigated the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy on the levels of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), antioxidant vitamins, and elements in colorectal cancer patients. Twelve patients with newly diagnosed colorectal carcinoma and 12 healthy subjects were included in this study. Blood samples were collected from both the healthy controls and patients. 5-FU was intravenously administered to the patients for 6 weeks, and blood samples were collected again from the treatment group. In the patient group, lipid peroxidation levels were increased in both the plasma and erythrocyte samples, whereas GSH-Px activity and concentrations of GSH, vitamin E, and beta-carotene in erythrocytes were decreased. The oxidant, antioxidant, and plasma calcium values were lower in 5-FU-treated patients than in the controls. Plasma vitamin A, chloride, sodium, and potassium concentrations did not change with 5-FU treatment. In conclusion, oxidative stress in patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer is attributable to the disease and not to 5-FU treatment. Blood vitamin E, beta-carotene, GSH, and GSH-Px levels could be useful as early biomarkers of the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients.