Drug-induced liver toxicity is a common cause of liver injury. This study was designed to elucidate whether high dose vancomycin (VCM) induces oxidative stress in liver and to investigate the protective effects of erdosteine, an expectorant agent. Twenty-two young Wistar rats were divided into three groups as follows: control group, VCM, and VCM plus erdosteine. VCM was administered intraperitoneally in the dosage of 200 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days. Erdosteine was administered orally administered once a day at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde, as an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were measured to evaluate oxidative stress in homogenates of the liver. VCM administration increased malondialdehyde levels (p < 0.001), superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01) and catalase (p < 0.001) activities. Erdosteine co-administration with VCM injections caused significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels (p < 0.001), superoxide dismutase (p < 0.01) and catalase (p < 0.001) activities in liver tissue when compared with VCM alone. It can be concluded that erdosteine may prevent VCM-induced oxidative changes in liver by reducing reactive oxygen species.