Both health and human capital are simultaneously resources and indicators of sustainable development. Therefore, this research article studies the causal interaction among total health expenditures, out-of-pocket expenditures, human capital, and sustainable development in eleven EU member countries during 2000–2020 through the panel causality test. The result of the causality test indicates that indicators of health expenditures, human capital, and sustainable development are closely interrelated, but the causal interaction among indicators of health expenditures, human capital, and sustainable development differs among the new EU members. On the one hand, health expenditures and human capital are significant factors underlying sustainable development. On the other hand, sustainable development is a significant determinant of health expenditures and human capital. Considering the significant role of human capital for sustainable development, education and training programs should especially be revised in a way to improve the sustainability and healthy life awareness and qualifications of the individuals. Furthermore, the digital transformation of health systems from both supply and demand sides should be supported by public health policies.