Health Expenditures, Human Capital, and Sustainable Development: Panel Evidence from the New EU Member Countries

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Sustainability (Switzerland), vol.15, no.19, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 19
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su151914514
  • Journal Name: Sustainability (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: health expenditures, human capital, new EU member countries, panel causality analysis, sustainable development
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


Both health and human capital are simultaneously resources and indicators of sustainable development. Therefore, this research article studies the causal interaction among total health expenditures, out-of-pocket expenditures, human capital, and sustainable development in eleven EU member countries during 2000–2020 through the panel causality test. The result of the causality test indicates that indicators of health expenditures, human capital, and sustainable development are closely interrelated, but the causal interaction among indicators of health expenditures, human capital, and sustainable development differs among the new EU members. On the one hand, health expenditures and human capital are significant factors underlying sustainable development. On the other hand, sustainable development is a significant determinant of health expenditures and human capital. Considering the significant role of human capital for sustainable development, education and training programs should especially be revised in a way to improve the sustainability and healthy life awareness and qualifications of the individuals. Furthermore, the digital transformation of health systems from both supply and demand sides should be supported by public health policies.