Potential Interactions between Invasive Fusarium circinatum and Other Pine Pathogens in Europe

Elvira-Recuenco M., Cacciola S. O., Sanz-Ros A. V., Garbelotto M., Aguayo J., Solla A., ...More

FORESTS, vol.11, no.1, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/f11010007
  • Journal Name: FORESTS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Environment Index, Geobase, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


Pines are major components of native forests and plantations in Europe, where they have both economic significance and an important ecological role. Diseases of pines are mainly caused by fungal and oomycete pathogens, and can significantly reduce the survival, vigor, and yield of both individual trees and entire stands or plantations. Pine pitch canker (PPC), caused by Fusarium circinatum (Nirenberg and O'Donnell), is among the most devastating pine diseases in the world, and is an example of an emergent invasive disease in Europe. The effects of microbial interactions on plant health, as well as the possible roles plant microbiomes may have in disease expression, have been the focus of several recent studies. Here, we describe the possible effects of co-infection with pathogenic fungi and oomycetes with F. circinatum on the health of pine seedlings and mature plants, in an attempt to expand our understanding of the role that biotic interactions may play in the future of PPC disease in European nurseries and forests. The available information on pine pathogens that are able to co-occur with F. circinatum in Europe is here reviewed and interpreted to theoretically predict the effects of such co-occurrences on pine survival, growth, and yield. Beside the awareness that F. circinatum may co-occurr on pines with other pathogens, an additional outcome from this review is an updating of the literature, including the so-called grey literature, to document the geographical distribution of the relevant pathogens and to facilitate differential diagnoses, particularly in nurseries, where some of them may cause symptoms similar to those induced by F. circinatum. An early and accurate diagnosis of F. circinatum, a pathogen that has been recently introduced and that is currently regulated in Europe, is essential to prevent its introduction and spread in plantings and forests.