Few studies have investigated the risk factors for nosocomial infections developed in neurology intensive care units (ICUs). In this study, the risk factors for ICU-acquired infections in patients with cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarct who were treated for more than 24 h at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital were prospectively evaluated over a study period of 14 months. Of 171 patients included in the study, 71 (41.5%) were found to have acquired 163 infections in the ICU unit throughout 1,867 patient days. The rate of infection per 100 patients admitted was 95.3, and per 1,000 patient days, 87.3. The most common nosocomial infections were urinary tract infection (42.9%), pneumonia (27%) and primary bacteremia (19%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed age > 70 (P < 0.05), the presence of a central venous catheter (P = 0.004), and parenteral nutrition (P = 0.02) as ICU-acquired infection risk factors. The presence of infection on admission was identified as a factor decreasing the risk of ICU-acquired infection (P < 0.001). The high infection rates found in this study may be due to lack of full compliance to infection control measures. In conclusion, each type of ICU has its own epidemiological findings for nosocomial infections and thus needs to detennine the risk factors using periodical surveillance studies to guide control measures.