This study was carried out to determine potential of essential oil isolated from seeds of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich), occupied mainly in Turkey. Rate and components of essential oil were studied on the seeds sampled from 25 open pollinated families of each three natural populations of the species in 2009. Heritability and variations within population and among populations were estimated for rate and components of essential oil. Besides, the rate and components of essential oil were compared for altitude, aspect, age and diameter at breast height. Average of essential oil rate was 1.82 %, while there were large differences among populations and within population for the rate. Totally, 137 components were determined, while alpha-pinene (27.08 %) and beta-pinene (20.35 %) were major components in the oil. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found among populations, and generally age, altitude, and diameter classes for the rate and components. Heritability was very low (0.27) for the oil rate, while it was very high (>0.78) for the rate of major components. Results of the study showed importance of selected material for quality and quantity of essential oil.