Objective The goal of this study was to investigate whether vancomycin (VCM) has a negative effect on pancreatic tissue and to elucidate the role of erdosteine (ERD), an expectorant and an antioxidant agent, on possible VCM-induced pancreas impairment in rats. Materials and methods A total of 21 male Wistar albino rats were included in this study. All animals were equally divided into three groups as follows: Controls (n = 7), VCM treated group (200 mg/kg twice daily for 7 days intraperitoneally, n = 7) and VCM (200 mg/kg) + ERD treated group (10 mg/kg day orally ERD, n = 7). The first dose of ERD administration was performed 24 h prior to VCM injection and the study was continued for 7 days. At the end of the study, all animals were sacrificed. Blood and pancreas tissue samples were collected. For biochemical analysis, serum amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities were measured. For histopathological examination, pancreas tissue samples were investigated under the light microscope. Results VCM administration has significantly increased the serum amylase, lipase, ALP, and GGT activities, when compared with the controls. VCM + ERD administration significantly decreased the serum lipase, amylase, and GGT activities. There was no statistically significant difference between the VCM + ERD treated group and only VCM treated group by means of serum ALP levels. It has been observed that there was a prominent pancreatic tissue damage in only VCM given group. However, ERD exhibited structural protection against VCM-induced pancreatic damage and this effect was statistically significant. ERD has also obtained a marked reduction in the extent of pancreatic damage. Conclusion Erdosteine may play an important role in the VCM-induced pancreatic damage and may reduce the pancreatic damage both in biochemical and histopathological aspects.