We aimed to investigate the effect of subchronic administration of dichlorvos (DDVP) on endometrium and to evaluate ameliorating effects of a combination of Vitamins E and C against DDVP toxicity in the rat. Three groups of rats were used in the experiment. The first group was treated with 4 mg/kg DDVP; the second group was treated with 4 mg/kg body weight DDVP plus Vitamins E and C (DDVP + Vit); the third group was given only corn oil (control). DDVP and DDVP + Vit groups were given DDVP by gavage 5 days a week for 4 weeks at a dose level of 4 mg/kg day by using corn oil as the vechicle. Vitamins E and C were injected at doses of 50 mg/kg i.m. and 20 mg/kg body weight i.p. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations for caspase-3 and caspase-9 were accomplished in the endometrium. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased significantly in the DDVP group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). MDA significantly decreased in the DDVP + Vit group compared with the DDVP group (p < 0.05). Administration of Vitamins E and C along with DDVP significantly reduced the histopathological changes and the extent of apoptosis. In conclusion, subchronic DDVP administration caused endometrial damage and that treatment with a combination of Vitamins E and C reduced endometrial damage caused by DDVP. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.