Function and Regulation of Heterotrimeric G Proteins during Chemotaxis


Kamp M. E. , Liu Y., Kortholt A.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol.17, no.1, 2016 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 17 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ijms17010090
  • Journal Name: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Keywords: chemotaxis, G-protein coupled receptors, heterotrimeric G proteins, adaptation, non-canonical regulators, G alpha effectors, G-BETA-GAMMA, COUPLED RECEPTOR ACTIVATION, PLECKSTRIN HOMOLOGY DOMAIN, NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR, PHOSDUCIN-LIKE PROTEINS, RGS PROTEINS, CHEMOATTRACTANT RECEPTORS, CELL-MIGRATION, ACTIN REORGANIZATION, MEDIATED ACTIVATION

Abstract

Chemotaxis, or directional movement towards an extracellular gradient of chemicals, is necessary for processes as diverse as finding nutrients, the immune response, metastasis and wound healing. Activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is at the very base of the chemotactic signaling pathway. Chemotaxis starts with binding of the chemoattractant to GPCRs at the cell-surface, which finally leads to major changes in the cytoskeleton and directional cell movement towards the chemoattractant. Many chemotaxis pathways that are directly regulated by G beta gamma have been identified and studied extensively; however, whether G alpha is just a handle that regulates the release of G beta gamma or whether G alpha has its own set of distinct chemotactic effectors, is only beginning to be understood. In this review, we will discuss the different levels of regulation in GPCR signaling and the downstream pathways that are essential for proper chemotaxis.