Isoniazid (INH) has neurotoxic effects such as seizure, poor concentration, subtle reduction in memory, anxiety, depression and psychosis. INH-induced toxic effects are thought to be through increased oxidative stress, and these effects have been shown to be prevented by antioxidant therapies in various organs. Increased oxidative stress may be playing a role in these neurotoxic effects. N-methyl D-aspartat receptors (NMDA) are a member of the ionotropic group of glutamate receptors. These receptors are involved in a wide variety of processes in the central nervous system including synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, memory and learning. Erdosteine is a potent antioxidant and mucolytic agent. We aimed to investigate adverse effects of INH on rat hippocampal NMDAR receptors, and to elucidate whether erdosteine prevents possible adverse effects of INH. In the present study, compared to control group, NMDAR2A (NR2A) receptors were significantly decreased and malondialdehyde (MDA), end product of lipid peroxidation, production was significantly increased in INH-treated group. On the other hand, administration of erdosteine to INH-treated group significantly increased NR2A receptors and decreased MDA production. In conclusion, decreasing NR2A receptors in hippocampus and increasing lipid peroxidation correlates with the degree of oxidative effects of INH and erdosteine protects above effect of INH on NR2A receptors and membrane damage due to lipid peroxidation by its antioxidant properties.