This study was designed to compare the effect of Aspirin (AS) and Nimesulide (NM) on renal failure and vascular disorder in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic rats, diabetic rats plus AS and diabetic rats plus NM, which are COX inhibitors. The renal and aorta tissues morphology were investigated by light microscopy. Trunk blood was also obtained to determine plasma lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma activity of antioxidant enzymes. MDA levels were increased in the diabetic rats when compared to the control group. AS and NM administration caused a significant decrease in MDA production. Morphological damage in diabetic rats was severe in the kidney and in the aorta tissue. Treatment of AS reduced these damages, but NM did not exert positive effect on these damages in diabetic rats. As a result, although both AS and NM corrected lipid peroxidation parameters such as MDA via their antioxidant properties, only AS ameliorated pathological alteration in tissues. These findings indicate that there may be another mechanism in beneficial effect of AS in diabetic rats. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.