The chemical composition of the essential oils (EO) isolated aerial parts of Calamintha incana (Sm.) Boiss. from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS analysis. The oxygenated monoterpenes trans-piperitone oxide (41.37%), piperitenone oxide (34.47%), piperitenone (6.67%), and monoterpene phenol thymol (3.37%) were found to be the major constituents of the essential oils of C. incana. The results of the antioxidant activity in phosphomolybdenum, radical scavenging (DPPH and ABTS) and reducing power activity (CUPRAC and FRAP) as well as metal chelating effects (ferrous ion chelating) showed that EO was the most potent in ABTS (129.58 +/- 2.21 mg TEs/g oil) and CUPRAC and FRAP (51.14 +/- 0.05 and 53.63 +/- 0.10 mg TEs/g, respectively) assays. In enzymes inhibitory activity assays of EO, the best result was achieved for tyrosinase (2.10 +/- 0.30 mg KAEs/g oil). The results suggest that EO might be considered as a potential source of bioactive agents to be used in food and pharmacological industries.