EXAMPLE OF A WOODEN HILYE, FROM 19TH CENTURY


Eroğlu Bilgin S., Akhan A. A. D.

ANKARA ANADOLU VE RUMELI ARAŞTIRMALARI DERGISI = ANKARA'S JOURNAL OF ANATOLIA AND RUMELIA STUDIES, vol.3, no.6, pp.323-347, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Abstract

In this study, the Hilye-i Saadet plate, which is one of the hidden treasures of the Antalya Museum and stands out with its depiction of the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, has been examined in the context of its content, form and ornamental features. The Hilye-i Saadet plate, registered with the inventory number 26.75.75, was purchased from the Alanya Museum in 1975 and acquised in the Antalya Museum collection. The hilye, which was kept in the museum storage, was illuminated with calligraphy on paper and pasted on wood. The Hilye-i Saadet plate having the date of 1801 has survived to the present day in good condition. This work (Hilye) gains importance not only because of the richness of the composition of illumination, but also because it is an authorazition (icazetname). The fact that the hilye has the qualifications of a qualification certificate/diploma given to the student by the master makes this work a privilege among its counterparts. In the ornaments of the hilye, which was prepared in a classical form, influence of westernization prevailing in the illumination style of the 19th century is observed. The motifs used in the ornaments of the hilye attract attention with their vivid colors. In motifs made on gold, dark blue and sometimes brick red backgrounds; pink, blue, red, gold, green and white colors were used by painting in tone. At the part on the top of the hilye, a depiction of architectural elements of the AlMasjid an-Nabawi, accompanied by sand dunes in the background. In the depiction, where the sand dunes, which are marked with black contour, create a perspective effect, it is seen that the ground is painted with earth color and gold, while shades of gray and black are used in the architectural 324 texture. The inscriptions in the middle part of the hilye were written in naskh calligraphy with beyn es-sutur, while the other inscriptions were written in black soot on a gold background. Throughout the history of Islam, poets wrote na’t-i serif, siyer, hilyesemâil, miracnâme, mevlid, esmâ-i Nebî, mu’cizât-ı Nebî, forty hadiths, hundred hadiths and various works in the genres that developed depending on them, to show their love to prophet Hz Muhammad. One of these literary genres, "hilye", deals with the physical and character traits of the Hz. Muhammad. By its dictionary meaning, “Hilye”, which means ornament, decoration, characterization, creation, image, adjective, ornament made with precious stones and metals, and the external appearance of human, is a word of Arabic origin. In Turkish, the word hilye has found its meaning in the form of "ornaments, ornaments, gems, beautiful adjectives, beautiful face, and a poetic or prose work describing the blessed qualities and beauties of the Hz. Muhammad." Hilye-i Saadet figuratively means the portrait of the Hz. Muhammad made in calligraphy. Hilye, also known as Hilye-i Şerif, Hilye-i Saadet and Hilye-i Nabawi, is the general name given to works that describe the physical characteristics, character, human and moral qualities, attitudes and movements of the Hz. Muhammad in Islamic literature and calligraphy. In time, the word gained a special meaning, denoting a plate with a literary genre and its own form, in relation to its meanings. The writing and illumination o f the hilye in the form o f a plate is an art tradition that is not seen in other Islamic countries, but only found in the Ottoman and later Republican period cultural approach. The hilyes in the form of plates, prepared as a manifestation of devotion and love to the Hz. Muhammad, had an exceptional place in Ottoman calligraphy. Hilyes function as a means o f contemplation, providing the viewer with the opportunity to visualize the Hz. Muhammad in his mind, to get closer and to integrate with him. Hilye goes beyond figurative depiction and invites the audience to contemplate the Hz. Muhammad through visual and cognitive ways that activate abstract thought and the eye of the heart. In the beginning, portable size verbal descriptions describing the characteristics of the Hz. Muhammad were first arranged by Hafiz Osman in the 17th century in the form of an illuminated and plate. The form and ornamentation concept used in the first hilye by Hafız Osman, in which Hakani praised the Hz. Muhammad and was inspired by the Hilye-i Şerif masnavi, was adopted by calligraphers and illuminators, and these features were repeated in later works. Hilye illuminations were formed in compositions in which traditional motifs were used in the first period, but they took their share from the western-based cultural interaction that emerged in the 18th century. Eroğlu Bilgin, S., Direr Akhan, A. A. (2022). 19.Yüzyıldan Tasvirli Bir Ahşap Hilye Örneği. ANKARAD, 3(6), 323-347. 325 Western motifs, which entered Turkish art after this interaction brought about by westernization, were effective in illumination as well as in other Ottoman arts. In this period, the discovery of the folds which are characteristic in Baroque and Rococo folds of Europe by the illuminators led to the enrichment of the compositions. In general, motifs in style of baroque and rococo characters, painted with tones, and made in a naturalist style with a light effect with white, were used in harmony with traditional motifs. The rose motif, which is believed to symbolize the Hz. Muhammad, is frequently encountered in religious art works produced between the 17th and 19th centuries. The rose motif, called "Rose of Muhammad", has become one of the most important metaphors that developed within the late Ottoman mystical worship traditions and expresses the supernatural beauty of the Hz. Muhammad. For this reason, single or bouquet-shaped roses expressing the rose metaphor are frequently repeated in hilye illuminations. The fact that Mecca and Medina depictions began to appear on hilye illuminations in the 18th and 19th centuries is another example of metaphor. These depictions, which can be said to be the product of an effort to embody the invisible Hz. Muhammad with symbols about him, are like the complement of hilye illuminations. Of course, the visual portrait of the Hz. Muhammad is not a one-to-one description, on the contrary, it is a mental image created in the world o f imagination and directed by a strong bond of love. When evaluated in this context, Hilye-i Saadet plates should be accepted as art productions that emerged as a result of the effort to visualize the indescribable mental and sacred image by means of calligraphy