Ebû Bekir el-Hallâl'ın Kitâbü's-Sünne Adlı Eserinde Mezheplere Yönelik Eleştirileri ve Muhtelif Konulardaki Kanaatleri


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Güler M. H. , Ünlüsoy K.

Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İslami İlimler Fakültesi Dergisi, vol.5, no.1, pp.113-135, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 5 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.52637/kiid.1056357
  • Journal Name: Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İslami İlimler Fakültesi Dergisi
  • Journal Indexes: TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.113-135

Abstract

Ahl al-Hadith is the given name to people who adopt a narration-centered approach to

religious matters in Islam. Hanbalism is one of the Sunni/creed/fiqh sects evaluating the

issues of faith with a literal approach, and it was formed under the leadership of Ahmad b.

Hanbal (d. 241/855). Abu Bakr al-Khallal (d. 311/923), one of the Ahl al-Hadith, had

succeeded in having the scientific legacy left by Ahmed b. Hanbal and also succeeded in

developing it. In the following periods, he was referred to as "the person who made

Hanbalism a systematic sect". During the institutionalization of the sect, Abu Bakr al-Khallal

made a significant contribution to the formation of the sect's theological infrastructure with

the works he produced as well as the students he trained and ensured that the Hanbali sect

survived in this form until today. Abu Bakr al-Khallal lived in the III. the century that was a

period of time when conflicts were increased among Muslims, the culture of criticism

developed in this context, and the books were written in the same directions. Mostly, the

books which are written by the people of hadith and written with the aim of defending the

sound of Islam against the innovators are known as Sunna. In such works, return to the

origin of the religion; It is emphasized that it is possible by clinging to the Sunnah of the

Messenger of Allah and by sticking to the views of the Messenger’s Companions, Tâbiîn and

tebeu't-tâbiîn who transfer this sunnah to the next generations. Kitâbu's-Sunna, which was

written by Ebû Bekir el-Khallal, forms the basis of our study, and it is very valuable in terms

of compiling Ahmed b. Hanbel's words and shedding light on the issues of the century in

which it was written. In the Kitâbu's-Sunna, sects such as Kharijite, Murjie, Muʻtazila,

Jahmiyya and Shia were handled in a narration-centered manner, the views of people such as

Maʻbed al-Juhenî (d. 83/702), Jâʻd b. Dirham (d. 124/742), Jehm b. Safwan (d. 128/745), Ebû

Hanîfa (d. 150/767), Dırar b. Amr (d. 200/815), Abu Bakr Abdurrahman b. Keysan al-Esamm

(d. 200/816), Bishr al-Merîsî (d. 218/833), Abu Duʻâd (d. 240/854) and Karâbîsî (d.

248/862) on some issues are included. In addition, political events such as the Qurayshism

of the caliphate, obedience to the head of the state, the order of virtue and caliphate among

the companions, and the cases of Jamel and Siffin were also mentioned. Abu Bakr al-Khallal

gave general information about the sects that he accepted as bid'at, and showed how distant

one should be when establishing relations with them, as required by the intellectual

infrastructure of his sect. For example, he stated that the Kharijites were not liked by Ahmed

b. Hanbal and his followers, and it is not permissible to pray behind a Murjii imam, how

worthy of takfir is the Qadariyye, and there is no more violent group than the Jahmiyya at the

point of walking against them with the sword, and the Shia are in the same position as the

Jews. Abu Bakr al-Khallal also includes the persons whose names are mentioned above; he

was harshly criticized for his attitudes on issues such as the Qur'an, destiny, and Allah's

attributes. When the political attitude in his work is examined, Abu Bakr al-Khallal tries to

prove that the caliphs must be from the Quraysh tribe. However, he emphasizes that

obedience to the head of state is an obligation for all Muslims. Abu Bakr al-Khallal also

mentioned the virtue of Muawiya b. Ebî Sufyan (d. 60/680). He states that it is not

permissible to have bad feelings towards the Prophet (pbuh) because of his kindship. Khallal

advocated that it is not appropriate to talk about the situation of the Companions and about

the results of the wars of Jamal and Siffin, and this issue should be leaved to the will of Allah.

The aim of the study is to evaluate the issues mentioned in Abu Bakr al-Khallal's work by

revealing. For this reason, after giving a brief information about Abu Bakr al-Khallal's life and

Kitâbu's-Sunna, it will be examined Khallal's opinions about the sects that are criticized in

Kitâbu's-Sunna and their notable representants will also be discussed. Following these

topics, Khallal's view on some events that took place among the Companions will be

evaluated.