In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of rats exposed to the 900 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF). EMF of cellular phones may affect biological systems by increasing free radical, which appear mainly to enhance LPO, and by changing the antioxidative activities of liver, thus leading to oxidative damage. CAPE, an active component of propolis extract, exhibits antioxidant properties and several studies suggest that supplementation with antioxidant can influence EMF exposure induced hepatotoxicity. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control (n = 10), 900 MHz EMF (n = 10) and 900 MHz EMF + CAPE (n = 10). CAPE was injected intraperitoneally for 30 days before exposure to EMF. Liver tissue was removed to study the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), xanthine oxidase (XO) and the levels of LPO. The activities of XO, CAT and level of LPO increased in the 900 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) group compared with the control group, although XO, CAT activities and LPO levels were decreased by 900 MHz EMF + CAPE administration. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px decreased in the 900 MHz EMF group compared with the control group, although their levels were increased by EMF + CAPE administration. It can be concluded that CAPE may prevent the 900 MHz EMF-induced oxidative changes in liver by strengthening the antioxidant defense system by reducing reactive oxygen species and increasing antioxidant enzyme activities. Toxicology and Industrial Health 2009; 25: 429-434.