This study evaluates the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of alloxydim sodium using micronucleus (MN) assay, in human peripheral lymphocytes. MN assay was used to investigate the genotoxic effects of alloxydim sodium in human peripheral lymphocytes treated with 250, 500, 750, 1,000 A mu g/ml concentrations of alloxydim sodium for 24 and 48 h. Solvent, negative and positive controls were also used in the experiments in parallel. The obtained results were evaluated in statistical analyses by using Dunnett-t test (two sided) and p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Alloxydim sodium significantly increased the MN formation compared with the negative control, at both 750 and 1,000 A mu g/ml concentrations and treatment periods. We also evaluated the nuclear division index (NDI) for cytotoxicity of this pesticide in the experiment, and finally observed a significant decrease of the NDI values at all concentrations of alloxydim sodium and at both treatment periods.