It has been suggested that oxidative stress products play an important role in the etiology of epilepsy. We investigated the effects of selenium (Se) administration on topiramate (TPM)- and pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced brain toxicity in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups. The first and second groups were used as the control and PTZ groups, respectively. TPM, 50 mg, and Se, 0.3 mg, were administered to rats constituting the third and fourth groups, respectively, for 7 days. The combination of 50 mg TPM and Se was given to animals in the fifth group for 7 days. At the end of 7 days all groups except the first received a single dose of PTZ. Brain cortex samples were taken at 3 h of PTZ administration. PTZ resulted in a significant increase in brain cortex and microsomal lipid peroxidation (LP) levels, number of spikes, and epileptiform discharges on the EEG, although brain cortex vitamin E, brain cortex and microsomal reduced glutathione (GSH), and microsomal calcium (Ca) levels, Ca2+-ATPase activities, and latency to first spike on the EEG were decreased by PTZ. LP, GSH, vitamin E, and Ca levels and Ca2+-ATPase activities were increased by both Se and TPM, although vitamin A and C concentrations were increased by Se only. There were no effects of TPM and Se on brain cortex and microsomal glutathione peroxidase, brain cortex nitric oxide, or beta-carotene levels. In conclusion, TPM and selenium caused protective effects on PTZ-induced brain injury by inhibiting free radical production, regulating calcium-dependent processes, and supporting the antioxidant redox system.