Although there have been many studies on this topic, the molecular mechanism of the toxic effects of hyperammonemia on cells has not yet been fully explained. Recent studies have held oxidative stress mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia-induced cell damage. Kidney functions are affected in diseases associated with an increase in ammonia in the blood. Our study tries to determine whether oxidative stress mechanisms are responsible for kidney damage in chronic hyperammonemia. We also investigated whether kidney damage is dependent on possible reactive oxygen products associated with the xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme and whether the possible association can be inhibited with allopurinol, an XO enzyme inhibitor. The study took into consideration the enzyme activities of XO, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as protein thiol (P-SH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The data found demonstrated that chronic hyperammonemia had oxidative stress effects on the kidney, and that kidney XO and XDH activity changed. However, it was not possible to inhibit this oxidative stress in the kidney using allopurinol. Thus, we could not conclude that oxidative stress is an XO-dependent mechanism. The outcomes of the study suggested that this oxidative situation arising in hyperammonemia occurred through a mechanism other than the XO enzyme.