Introduction: Hematoma is a common complication of inguinoscrotal surgery in childhood. We aimed to identify the possible effects of extratesticular hematoma on blood flow and the histology of testes in the early period. Also, the dartos tissue was evaluated histologically. Materials and Methods: Unilateral extratesticular hematoma was created in 12 New Zealand rabbits. Parenchyma of the testes and scrotum walls was evaluated by B-mode ultrasound and the spectrum from the intratesticular vessels was obtained by color Doppler ultrasound on days 1, 7 and 15 of the procedure. Testes and scrotal walls were removed at the end of the study for histologic evaluation. Results: There were no significant pathologic findings in the evaluation of the parenchyma and hemodynamia of the testes on days 1, 7 and 15. A well-organized but continuing hematoma was observed on day 15. Increased fibroblastic activity, dense inflammatory cells, necrotic areas and destruction of the muscular layer were observed at pathologic evaluation of the scrotum. Conclusions: Extratesticular hematoma has no effect on testicular histology and hemodynamia in the early period. Pathologic evaluation revealed fibrosis of the dartos fascia at the end of the second week. Destruction and fibrosis of this tissue may have an adverse effect on spermatogenesis by altering thermoregulation. Copyright (C) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.