The objective Of this Study was to investigate the roles of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the pathogenesis of vocal fold polyps (VFPs). Ill this study, 20 VFPs and 8 normal vocal fold (VF) specimens were obtained from subjects undergoing surgery. Staining intensities were semiquantitatively assessed and statistically analyzed. Significant increases were observed ill the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9. and COX-2 ill stromal spindle cells (P = 0.00) and vascular wall (P = 0.04, P = 0.00, P = 0.00) of VFPs compared with normal VFs. MMP-2 expression ill surface epithelium basal cells (P = 0.00) of VFPs showed enhancement compared with normal vocal folds. whereas MMP-9 and COX-2 expressions showed no significant differences. Our study showed that gelatinases and COX-2 may play a role in the development of VFPs, This is the first Study to document the expression Of gelatinases and COX-2 in VFPs.