The beneficial effect of salubrinal on neuroinflammation and neuronal loss in intranigral LPS-induced hemi-Parkinson disease model in rats


CANKARA F. N. , Kus M. S. , Gunaydin C., Safak S., BİLGE S. S. , ÖZMEN Ö., ...More

IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY, vol.44, no.2, pp.168-177, 2022 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 44 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/08923973.2021.2023174
  • Journal Name: IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY AND IMMUNOTOXICOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.168-177
  • Keywords: Endoplasmic reticulum stress, salubrinal, Parkinson's disease, LPS, ENDOPLASMIC-RETICULUM STRESS, ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS, ACTIVATION, INHIBITOR, AUTOPHAGY

Abstract

Objective Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and neuroinflammation are triggers for neurodegenerative disorders. Salubrinal is a selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) complex involving dephosphorylation of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2 alpha (eIF2 alpha), the key crucial pathway in the ERS. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of inhibition of the ERS with salubrinal in the intranigral hemi-Parkinson disease (PD) model. Materials and methods Animals were treated with salubrinal for one week after the PD model was created by intranigral lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Apomorphine-induced rotation, rotarod, cylinder, and pole tests were performed to evaluate behavioral changes. Proinflammatory cytokines and the expression level of the dual specificity protein phosphatase 2 (DUSP2), PP1, and p-eIF2 alpha were evaluated. Nigral expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor kappaB (Nf-kappa B), and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 was determined. Finally, tyrosine hydroxylase and caspase-3/ caspase-9 expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Salubrinal reduced the motor impairments and dopamine-related behavioral deficiencies caused by the LPS. Salubrinal attenuated the LPS-induced increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and salubrinal rescued the loss of TH expression and dopamine levels and prevented the caspase-3/9 increase in the substantial nigra (SN). LPS potently increased iNOS, Nf-kappa B, and COX-2 expression, but this effect was reduced after salubrinal treatment. Additionally, salubrinal attenuated the LPS-induced PP1 and DUSP2 increase. Conclusion Our results reveal that salubrinal is attenuating several inflammatory mediators and thereby decreased the inflammatory effects of LPS in the neurons of the SN. Together this results in increased cellular survival and maintained integrity of SN. Taken together our data show the beneficial effects of inhibition of ERS to restrict neuroinflammatory progression and neuronal loss in a PD model.