Roco Proteins: GTPases with a Baroque Structure and Mechanism

Wauters L., Versees W., Kortholt A.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, vol.20, no.1, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 20 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ijms20010147
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: Parkinson's disease, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, Roco proteins, unconventional G-protein, GTPase mechanism, LEUCINE-RICH-REPEAT, ENVIRONMENTAL RISK-FACTORS, PARKINSONS-DISEASE, GTP-BINDING, LRRK2 GTPASE, DAP-KINASE, LEUCINE-RICH-REPEAT-KINASE-2 LRRK2, SIGNAL-TRANSDUCTION, GENE LRRK2, G-DOMAIN
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: No


Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are a common cause of genetically inherited Parkinson's Disease (PD). LRRK2 is a large, multi-domain protein belonging to the Roco protein family, a family of GTPases characterized by a central RocCOR (Ras of complex proteins/C-terminal of Roc) domain tandem. Despite the progress in characterizing the GTPase function of Roco proteins, there is still an ongoing debate concerning the working mechanism of Roco proteins in general, and LRRK2 in particular. This review consists of two parts. First, an overview is given of the wide evolutionary range of Roco proteins, leading to a variety of physiological functions. The second part focusses on the GTPase function of the RocCOR domain tandem central to the action of all Roco proteins, and progress in the understanding of its structure and biochemistry is discussed and reviewed. Finally, based on the recent work of our and other labs, a new working hypothesis for the mechanism of Roco proteins is proposed.