Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.; RKN) are one of the most important pathogens of vegetables in Turkey. Assessing the existing virulent RKN populations is of importance for pathogen mapping in the west Mediterranean region of Turkey. Therefore, 95 populations of RKN were collected from different protected vegetable-growing locations in the region. Pure cultures were obtained and identified by means of species-specific primers. Virulence of the populations against the Mi-1 gene conferring resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria was determined according to their egg masses and gall rating on resistant and susceptible tomato varieties. Results showed that seven populations of M. incognita and six populations of M. javanica were able to overcome the resistance controlled by the Mi-1 gene. The frequency of virulent populations of M. incognita and M. javanica collected from different protected-grown vegetables was 11.7% and 21.4%, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of populations of RKN virulent to the Mi-1 gene in Turkey.