Characterization of chemical, biological, and antiproliferative properties of fermented black carrot juice, shalgam

Ekinci F. Y., Baser G. M., Ozcan E., Ustundag O. G., Korachi M., SOFU A., ...More

EUROPEAN FOOD RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.242, no.8, pp.1355-1368, 2016 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 242 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00217-016-2639-7
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.1355-1368
  • Süleyman Demirel University Affiliated: Yes


Shalgam juice is a dark red-colored and sour fermented beverage produced and consumed in Turkey. The main ingredient of shalgam juice is black carrot, which is rich in anthocyanins. In this study, commercially available shalgam juice was characterized by determining its chemical composition and antioxidant capacity and by identifying its microflora. The predominant acid in the shalgam juice was lactic acid. LC/MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-galactoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, and cyanidin-3-arabinoside. The total phenolic content (517.21 A mu g GAE/mL) and antioxidant capacity (in A mu mol Trolox equivalents/mL) determined by ABTS (3.42), DPPH (4.44) and FRAP (2.26) assays of the commercial shalgam juice were similar to other common fruit juices. A total of 21 Lactobacillus species and subspecies were identified in shalgam juice using species-specific PCR with the nucleotide sequences of some of the identified lactic acid bacteria. Shalgam juice inhibited the growth of Caco-2 cells lines in a dose-dependent manner and had significantly higher inhibition at 3200 A mu g/mL compared to black carrot (p < 0.05).These results suggest that in addition to the actions of it (poly)phenolic constituents, shalgam juice might have a potent as antioxidant, probiotic and antiproliferative agents.