Analysis of hotel services by their symmetric and asymmetric effects on overall customer satisfaction: A comparison of market segments


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT, vol.81, pp.83-93, 2019 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 81
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2019.03.003
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.83-93
  • Keywords: Hotel services, Symmetric and asymmetric impacts, Overall customer satisfaction, Penalty-reward-contrast analysis, QUALITY ATTRIBUTES, 3-FACTOR THEORY, TOURIST SATISFACTION, PERFORMANCE, DIMENSIONS, IMPACT, MODEL


This study aims to examine how performance of hotel services symmetrically and asymmetrically affects overall customer satisfaction. For this purpose, data were collected from Turkish, German and Russian hotel customers staying at a five-star golf hotel in the Belek area in Antalya-Turkey. Data were first analyzed by multi-variable regression analysis for clarifying the symmetric impacts of eight service dimensions on overall customer satisfaction. Results showed that Entertainment Services, Restaurant Services, Cleaning of General Areas and Foreign Language Knowledge of Staff had the highest influences on customer satisfaction. Penalty-reward-contrast analysis was performed for the same service dimensions to understand their asymmetric influences on customer satisfaction. Significantly different categorizations (i.e. satisfiers; dissatisfiers if absent; hybrids) were obtained for three major market segments. Entertainment Services had been the only dimension which was categorized as a 'dissatisfier if absent' for all markets. Additional comparisons were made among the first-time and repeat customers, whereas Housekeeping Services were identified as the 'dissatisfiers if absent' for both groups.