Objective: Nutritional support and the route of nutrition are important conditions for patients with acute renal failure (ARF) in intensive care units (ICUs). Enteral nutrition (EN) is the primary route of nutrition in these patients because of a lower rate of complications. A lack of enteral feeding was reported to increase intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in experimental models. Serum soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) level is an independent predictor of mortality in predialysis patients. However, the effect of nutritional route on serum ICAM-1 level is unknown in ARF patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between route of nutrition and serum ICAM-1 level and its prognostic implications in ICU ARF patients.