Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is widely used as a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent. MTX-associated neurotoxicity is an important clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on cerebellar oxidative stress induced by MTX in rats. A total of 19 adult male rats were divided into three experimental groups as follows: MTX group (MTX treated), MTX+CAPE group (MTX+CAPE treated), and control group. MTX was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) with a single dose of 20 mg kg(-1) stop on the second day of experiment. CAPE was administered i.p. with a dose of 10 mu mol kg(-1) day(-1) for 7 days. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were determined in cerebellar tissue of rats. MTX caused to significant increase in MDA levels (an important marker of lipid peroxidation) in the MTX group compared with the controls (p = 0.006). CAPE significantly reduced the MTX induced lipid peroxidation in the MTX+CAPE group compared to the MTX (p = 0.007). The activities of SOD and CAT were significantly increased in the MTX group when compared with the control group (p = 0.0001, p = 0.004, respectively). The increased activities of these enzymes were significantly reduced by CAPE treatment (p = 0.004, p = 0.034, respectively). As a result, CAPE may protect from oxidative damage caused by MTX treatment in rat cerebellum.