International Journal of Agriculture Forestry and Life Sciences, vol.4, no.1, pp.14-20, 2020 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions)
Grape seed flour, obtained from grape pomace, the by-product of wine industry was supplemented into bread wheat flour to determine its effect on bread characteristics. Bread was prepared using different levels (0, 5, and 10%) of Öküzgözü (red grape variety) seed flour (ÖSF) and Narince (white grape variety) seed flour (NSF) replacement with bread wheat flour. At the same time, different amounts (0, 50, 100 mg/kg) of glucose oxidase (GOX) were added to each formulation to improve bread properties. It was observed that addition of NSF or ÖSF showed an important effect on physical and textural properties of wheat bread. Loaf volume, width, length and height values decreased accurately depending on increasing ÖSF and NSF levels. The addition of GOX, mainly when it was used at 100 mg/kg provided a significant improvement in all these values. Brightness (L value) and yellowness (b value) of crumb and crust of bread were gone down while redness (a value) went up as the ratio of NSF or ÖSF in the bread formulation were increased. Usage of GOX was made the bread brighter. It was determined that there was a significant increase in bread hardness by the addition of NSF or ÖSF depending on the increase of percentage. When compared with control sample hardness of bread was risen from 264.9 g to 1207.8 g and 1458.0 g by the addition of 10% of ÖSF or 10% NSF, respectively. using 100 mg/kg of GOX was found to be improve bread firmness considerably. Overall results indicate that the by-products of wine industry can be evaluated in bread making up to 5% level and the addition of GOX can restore quality characteristics of the bread.