Artificial intelligence has a remarkable effect on many different fields with its flexible and comprehensive solution approaches to solve real-world problems. In this context, the field of biomedical engineering has also been affected by employment of different artificial intelligence-based techniques. This chapter aims to give a theoretical discussion on using nature-inspired artificial intelligent techniques for obtaining intelligent applications within biomedical engineering. As it is known, techniques within the field of artificial intelligence are inspired from nature. So, it is a good approach to focus on nature-inspired techniques for discussing intelligent biomedical engineering research works. Readers will have a chance to understand some ways of using artificial intelligence for achieving better results in biomedical engineering and the related developments associated with this field.