Objective: Musculoskeletal involvement in brucellosis is very important. This study aimed to evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and hematological parameters as a predictive value for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal brucellosis.Method: This prospective case-control study was conducted between June 2011 and November 2019 in a university hospital. Ninety-nine patients with the confirmed diagnosis of brucellosis without musculoskeletal involvement and forty-three brucellosis patients with musculoskeletal involvement were examined. The hematological, biochemical parameters, and radiological imaging findings of both groups were recorded. These parameters were statistically compared between the two groups.Results: The mean age of the patients (non-involvement group) and musculoskeletal involvement groups was 44.04 +/- 23.11 and 37.92 +/- 24.80 years, respectively (P = 0.062). C-reactive protein (CRP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were significantly higher in the musculoskeletal involvement group (P < 0.05). The lower lymphocyte level was statistically significant in this group. Based on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 65% for ALP, 77% and 58% for CRP, 83% and 45% for lymphopenia, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of the other hematological and biochemical parameters. Spondylodiscitis (34.8%) was the most common MRI finding in patients with musculoskeletal involvement.Conclusion: Our study results show that CRP, ALP, and lymphopenia can be used as valuable markers in the preliminary diagnosis of musculoskeletal brucellosis.