Chemotaxis, or directional movement toward extracellular chemical gradients, is an important property of cells that is mediated through G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although many chemotaxis pathways downstream of G beta gamma have been identified, few G alpha effectors are known. G alpha effectors are of particular importance because they allow the cell to distinguish signals downstream of distinct chemoattractant GPCRs. Here we identify GflB, a G alpha 2 binding partner that directly couples the Dictyostelium cyclic AMP GPCR to Rap1. GflB localizes to the leading edge and functions as a G alpha-stimulated, Rap1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor required to balance Ras and Rap signaling. The kinetics of GflB translocation are fine-tuned by GSK-3 phosphorylation. Cells lacking GflB display impaired Rap1/Ras signaling and actin and myosin dynamics, resulting in defective chemotaxis. Our observations demonstrate that GflB is an essential upstream regulator of chemoattractant-mediated cell polarity and cytoskeletal reorganization functioning to directly link G alpha activation to monomeric G-protein signaling.