In this work, two cow teeth collected from the Niğde–Köşk Höyük excavation site in Turkey were studied for characterization and dosimetric purposes. Each tooth sample was prepared by applying mechanical and chemical methods to obtain the enamel fractions. To do this, mineralogical and elemental concentration properties of the tooth enamels were investigated by performing X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray measurements (SEM–EDX). It was found that the enamel structures contained a highly hydroxyapatite crystalline without any characteristic impurities. The dose response of the tooth enamels was determined by using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. Absorbed radiation doses were calculated as (26.05 ± 0.15) Gy and (25.48 ± 0.18) Gy by the additive dose method using both natural radiation doses and artificial irradiation doses of the enamel samples. It is concluded that these samples could be used to reconstruct radiation doses. This result can be considered as a precursor for future ESR dosimetry/dating studies of other fossil teeth at this excavation site.