2nd International Congress of Forensic Toxicology, Ankara, Turkey, 26 - 30 May 2016, pp.39
Bladder cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies around the world. Bladder cancer has
high rate of recurrence. Silibinin is a natural polyphenolic flavonoid isolated from seed
extracts of the herb milk thistle (Silybum marianum) with antioxidant and anticancer
properties. Silibinin was reported to depress cell growth and induce apoptosis in cancer cells.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis
by silibinin with the TUNEL method in human bladder carcinoma TCC-SUB and RT-4 cell
lines and cells of the synthesis phase with the BrdU labeling index.
The TCC-SUB and RT-4 cell lines, are bladder cancer cell, were cultured in monolayer
model. Cells were treated with silibinin at 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation. The BrdU
labeling index was used to determine the proliferation of cells. TUNEL assay were used to
determine the apoptotic cells in the monolayer culture.
An IC50 dose of silibinin in TCC-SUB and RT-4 cells was 100 µM/ml at 24, 48, and 72
hours of incubation. The control group had a normal pattern of S-phase fraction and many of
the TCC-SUB and RT-4 cells nuclei were observed to be positive for BrdU. TUNEL positive
cells were detected after treatment with silibinin in the monolayer cultures. The dead cell
count was higher in the TCC-SUB and RT-4 cell lines with silibinin applied than in the
We conclude that silibinin inhibit bladder cancer growth by apoptosis. Further in vivo studies
are needed to confirm our findings in humans.