Evaluation of sustainable groundwater utilization using index methods (WQI and IWQI), multivariate analysis, and GIS: the case of Aksehir District (Konya/Turkey)


ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-021-14106-y


Aksehir district is one of the regions where significant agricultural production and industrial activities are carried out. Groundwater is the most important water resource in this region used for different purposes, especially for drinking and irrigation water. In order to ensure sustainable water management in the study area, it is necessary to reveal the drinking and irrigation water quality of groundwater and to take precautions and determine the management plans. In the present study, groundwater quality was evaluated using water quality index methods (WQI and IWQI) and statistical analyses to determine the sustainable and most appropriate usage of groundwater. In addition, spatial distribution maps were prepared using GIS for drinking and irrigation WQI assessments of the groundwater. A total of 31 groundwater samples were collected from wells in October 2018 and physicochemical analysis results were evaluated. According to the results obtained with the WQI method, all groundwater samples in the study area are definitely not suitable for use as drinking water. According to the results obtained by the IWQI method, samples S23, S24, S25, S27, S28, S29, and S31 especially are not suitable for use as irrigation water. Statistical evaluations support the results obtained from WQI and IWQI methods. Also, factor analysis indicates that anthropogenic pollution, especially agricultural applications, is effective on the chemical and quality characteristics of groundwater samples in addition to the geological properties. As seen in the spatial distribution maps for WQI and IWQI results, while the quality of groundwaters around Dogruozu and Erdogdu is not suitable for drinking water, the groundwater quality in the north-east of the study area is also unusable for irrigation water. Consequently, the use of groundwater in the region as drinking water can be dangerous for human health and alternative drinking water resources should be investigated. In addition, in order to ensure the sustainable use of groundwater, it is necessary to control agricultural activities in the region, to monitor the use of pesticides and fertilizers, and to encourage organic farming practices in the region.